The notion of political theology – a kind of metaphysical-hermeneutical paradigm – plays a dominant role in current philosophical and theological discourses. In my postdoc project, I approach this paradigm from the critical point of view of one of its fiercest adversaries, Hermann Cohen's Neo-Kantian notion of rationality. The project, titled Religion, Politics, Reason and the Possibility of a Political Theology in the Philosophy of Herman Cohen, is both historical and philosophical. First, contra to a popular approach to Cohen's philosophy of religion as a source for a rational (i.e., ethical) political theology, I stress Cohen's critique of the very rationality of political theology as such, which he takes to be a form of political materialism. This materialism, for Cohen, is amoral and has devastating consequences for politics as well as for theology. I show that Cohen's critique is derived directly from his systematical grounding of rationality, specifically from the conditions of possibility of moral thinking and its actualization. Finally, based on Cohen's critique, I consider the possible political meaning of Cohen's theology and offer possible philosophical principles for a rational approach to the relation between theology and politics.